1500 - 1763 Discovery and First Spanish Period
1763 - 1783 English Period
1783 - 1821 Second Spanish Period
1821 - 1845 Territorial Period
1845 - Statehood
and Later
1861 - 1865 Civil War
Gulf Stream The Mapping of the Current

Surface Currents of the Atlantic Ocean
Schmits, Edward A.

This modern map is the frontispiece in The Ocean River by Henry Chapin and F.G. Walton Smith published by Charles Scribner's Sons in New York, 1952.

The book is a detailed description and history of the Gulf Stream and other Ocean Currents related to it. It was written by scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It also deals with the influence that the Atlantic Ocean currents had on the early explorers and traders and therefore reveals a lot about the history of the discovery and early exploration of America.

The map is a simple image of the various branches and gyres of the main currents in the Atlantic as well as some countercurrents and cold currents. This clear image summarizes most of what has been shown on earlier charts. Finer details and variations are constantly being studied and described.

Important as well is the designation of the Sargasso Sea.