1500 - 1763 Discovery and First Spanish Period
1763 - 1783 English Period
1783 - 1821 Second Spanish Period
1821 - 1845 Territorial Period
1845 - Statehood
and Later
1861 - 1865 Civil War
Gulf Stream The Mapping of the Current

Remarques sur la Navigation de Terr-Neuve afin d’euiter les Courrants et les bas-fonds au sud de Nantuckett el du Banc de George.
Le Rogue, Georges Louis (c.1712-c.1790)

This map was made in Paris around 1782 at the request of Benjamin Franklin who was then minister to the French Court between 1780-1783. He wanted a new chart because the original made in England in 1769 by the Post Office had been engraved on an old plate of an obsolete chart of the Atlantic Ocean by Mount and Page. It was then put away somewhere and was not available for the use of mariners. Franklin had wanted it to be distributed to the captains of the mail packets because they had complained that it took longer for them to sail from England to New York than it took to return and they could use the chart that was created based on the research and information of Folger, Franklin's cousin. Franklin had also taken temperature reading of the waters at various places along the route on his travels to England. The Mount and Page chart showed the whole Atlantic where as the Le Rouge concentrated on the North American coast past Newfoundland. It does not show the Azores or coast of Europe of Africa.

The two charts are quite similar in the portion showing the Gulf Stream which is the northwest corner of the four sheet Mount and Page. The most obvious differences are that the British chart has remarks by Franklin or Folger printed in English at the top right corner and a cartouche on the left. There is no printing in the right lower portion below the ship image. Also, the Le Rouge printed remarks are in French and it does not show the coast of South America. Otherwise, the Le Rouge appears to be a reproduction of the northwestern portion of the Mount and Page. Both show the Gulf Stream image extending only a short distance southeast of the Newfoundland Bank where it abruptly stops.